Thursday, May 31, 2012

The Bihari Sufis

The Bihari Sufis, who belonged to the Wajudia School, believed that 'Everything is He (Hama Oast) 'and reconciled religion with philosophy. Some of the early Bihari Muslims, as Sheikh Aaz of Karo (Gaya) and Ahmad Bihari, held views for which they were ordered for confinement and punished with chains. According to H. Shuaiv, Sultan Firuz Shah Tughluq at the instance of the orthodox Ulema of Delhi put the saint of Sheikhpura, Sheikh Aaz and Ahmad Bihari to death. Researches have revealed that Sufism had reached Bihar and its neighbouring regions even before the Turkish conquest. Its earliest adherents belonged to the Chisty and Soharwardia order of the Sufis.
Some of the well-known representatives of the Chisty order were Hazrat Mohammed Shahab-ud-din (RA) or 'Pir Jagjot' of Jethuli, Hazrat Badr-e-Alam of Choti Dargah, Hazrat Mir Fazlullah Gosain of Daira, Hazrat Farid-ud-din Tawaila Bux of Chandpura, Hazrat Ahmad Isa Taj of Bhaisaur, Hazrat Ataullah Baqhdadi of Mir Dad and Hazrat Syed Sadr-ud-din Zahidi (RA) - all belonging to the town of Biharsharif (Nalanda).
Saran, another notable center of activity of the Chisty Sufis, acquired considerable fame for its association with such scholarly saints as HazratMir Zahi Madariad Sarani of Sepaha, Hazrat Abdul Malik of Ushri and Hazrat Mohammed Syed Hasan of Hasanpura. Though the Shuttaria orders have now sunk into oblivion, there was a time when they had a great hold on the people of Bihar. Hazrat Syed Jamal-ud-din Madar of Makanpur (Uttar Pradesh) who had come over to Bihar was a well-known representative of the Madaria order. His mausoleum at Hilsa contains a dated inscription. One of the greatest Sufis of the Shuttaria order was Hazrat Abul Faiz Qazin Ola of Bania Basarh, near Vaishali.
The Qadri order is said to be "now one of the chief Sufi order of this province. We had one of its best representatives, Hazrat Sayed Muhammad of Amjhar Sarif in the Aurangabad district". The most important of all the Sufi orders in Bihar, however, was the Soharwardia, especially its sub-section, the Firdausia Silsila, one of whose most celebrated saints was Hazrat Sharf-ud-din Ahmad, who was born at Maner in 1262 and died at Biharsharif in 1377. The Mosques and Khankahs of the Sufi saints and preachers soon became centers of learning and veritable madarsas. Saif Khan's mosque and madarsa with its many saintly scholars on its staff, flourished till the end of the eighteenth century. The mosque of Hazrat Ataullah Zasinabi at Phulwari, bearing an inscription of Akbar's time, still stands and the madarsa still continues. Mulla Abul Husan of Darbhanga, the saintly scholar who taught Princess Zebunnisa, the accomplished daughter of Emperor Aurangzeb, and the five scholarly members of the syndicate that compiled Fatwa-i-Alamgiri, were all great saints of their time.
In Bihar, there are hundreds of holy places associated with various Sufi Saints. Some of ;those places are :-

Maner Sharif (Patna)
It is a large village of historical antiquities, situated in the extreme northwest of Danapur Sub-division, about 32-kms west of Patna on Patna-Arrah Highway.
In the early ages Maner was a center of learning and it is said that grammarian Panini, and also Bararuchi, lived and studied here. Maner contains two well-known Mohammedan tombs, that of Hazrat Shah Daulat or Makhdum Daulat, known as the Chhoti Dargah, and the other that of Hazrat Sheikh Yahia Maneri or Makhdum Yahia, called the Bari Dargah. Hazrat Makhdum Daulat died at Maner in 1608, and Ibrahim Khan, Governor of Bihar and one of the saint's disciples completed the erection of his mausoleum in 1616. The building is exceptionally fine one, with walls containing carvings of great delicacy and high finish. It stands on a raised platform, and at each corner rises a slender tower of graceful proportions. A great dome crowns it, and the ceiling is covered with carved inscriptions from the Quran. Every detail of it is characteristic of the architecture of Jehangir's reign, and it is by far the finest monument of the Mughals in Eastern India. Inside the compound there is a mosque also built by Ibrahim Khan in 1619, while a fine gateway bearing an older inscription corresponding to 1603-01, affords access to the north. The tomb of Hazrat Yahia Maneri (RA) lies in a mosque to the east of a large tank, with masonry walls and ghats, and pillared porticos jutting out into it, which is connected with the old bed of the River Sone by a tunnel 400-ft long.

Phulwari Sharif (Patna)
Nearly 7 kms from Patna junction Railway Station, Phulwari Sharif is an important Islamic pilgrimage. It has been always a favorite abode of Sufi saints in various times. Hazrat Pir Muzibullah Qadri (RA) was on of those in the 18th Century. The Khankah Muzibia founded by him at Phulwari Sharif is called the Bari Khankah. An old Madarsa here has been the most important center for teaching of Islamic philosophy since its establishment. There is also an archaeologically important and worth seeing ancient Sangi Masjid (mosque) built of red stones at Phulwari Sharif. The Mughal Emperor Humayun built it. Sacred hairs of the beard of Paigamber Hazrat Muhammad Saheb is preserved here in the Bari Khankah that
attracts throngs of his followers and a big mela is held every year.
Biharsharif (Nalanda)
This is headquarters of Nalanda district that lays 30-kms south of Bakhtiarpur on NH-31. This is also a railhead on the Bakhtiarpur- Rajgir branch line of the eastern Indian Railway. This town is known as Biharsharif, owing to its many Muslim tombs that still retain traces of its former importance as a Muslim pilgrimage. There is a hill called Pir Pahari, about 1-km to the northwest of the town. At its summit is the dargah or mausoleum of the Saint Hazrat Mallik Ibrahim Bayu, round which are tem smaller tombs. It is a brick structure surmounted by a dome and bears inscriptions showing that the saint died in 1353. Another great dargah is that of Hazrat Makhdum Shah Sharif-ud-din, also called Makhdum- ul -Mulk, who died here in 1379; the inscription over the entrance shows that his tomb was built in 1569. This tomb, which stands on the south bank of the river, is held in great veneration by the local Mohammedans, who assemble here on the 5th day of Sawan to celebrate the anniversary of his death.The Chhoti Dargah is the shrine of Hazrat Badruddin Badr-I-Alam, famous saint who died here in 1440.

Goraul Sharif (Sitamarhi)
This is a Muslim pilgrimage, some 26-kms from the Sitamarhi town. The place is treated to be very sacred after Bihar Sharif and Phulwari Sharif.

KHANKAHS
Khankah Emadia, Mangal Talab, Patna Saheb (Patna)
One of the offsprings in the family of prominent Sufi Saint Hazrat Pir Muzibullah Qadri (RA) had founded another Khankah during 19th Century near a tank called Mangal Talab that is situated in the Patna City Chowk area. It is called Khankah Emadia that houses a Madarsa. An Urs is held here annually when throngs of devotees assemble and pay their respect to their beloved Sufi Saint.
Khankah Samarkandia (Darbhanga)

Mausoleum of a Muslim saint, named Hazrat Maulana Samarkandi Rahamtullah Alaih is situated about one and half kilometers east of mohallah Mishra Tola and on the westerly south corner of a tank known as Sukhi Dighi, south of the Darbhanga railway station. It is said that the saint had demonstrated miracles on many occasions and had helped people overcome their problems. It is said that the saint hand established here a Khankah about 132 years back. The annual Urs of the saint is held here in the month of July. Women are not allowed to participate in the Urs.
Dargahs, Mazars, Tombs and Mausoleums

Dargah Sharif of Mittan Ghat, Patna Saheb (Patna)
A beautiful double storied mosque was built by Mugal Prince Azim on the banks of the Ganges at Mittan Ghat in Patna City area that was previously called Azimabad during the reign of Mugal Emperor Aurangzeb. This mosque was built for Mulla Mittan who was teacher of the Prince. It was the place from where the great Sufi Saint Hazrat Makhdum Muneem used to preach his disciples during the 18th Century. The ancient mosque still exists and is popularly known as Dargah Sharif. Every year, after five days of the "Id" festival, an annual Urs Chiraga is held here when devotees assemble at this Dargah Sharif in great numbers.
Dargah of Hazrat Saiyadana Mohammad Jilani Amjhari Qadri (RA)
Amjhar Sharif (Aurangabad)

Amjharsharif is an important Islamic pilgrimage in the Aurangabad district. It is about 10 kiometers from Panchrukhia on the Daudnagar - Gaya Road ( about 100 kms from Patna) under Haspura Police Station. There is an ancient Mazar (Grave) of a Muslim saint Hazrat Saiyadana Mohammad Jilani Amjhari Quadri. His Urs Mubaraq (Anniversary) is celebrated here in the first week of Rabi Allab (June) every year. Thousands of Muslim pilgrims visit this place from all over India on this auspicious occasion. Holy Hairs of the Saint, which is still preserved here, are put on Holy Display during the Annual Urs.
Dargah of Shah Arzan's (Lakri Dargah), (Gopalganj)
The village is situated about 24-kms north of Siwan and has apparently derived its name from a Muslim tomb that it contains. The tomb is that of a Mohammedan saint named Hazrat Shah Arzan who hailed from Patna. It is said he was attracted by the solitude of the place and had performed a chilla or a religious contemplation of 40 days. He also set up a religious establishment, which was endowed by the Emperor Aurangazeb. The anniversary of the saint's death is celebrated on the 11th of Rabi-us-sani every year, which attracts a large crowd.

Dargah of Hazrat Shah Zahoor, Bazidpur (Nawada)
The famous Dargah of the great Saint Shah Zahoor Ali Warsi (of 19th Century) is situated in Bazidpur village under Nawada district. Special feature of this historical Dargah is it's strong following both among Muslims and Hindus.A colourful congregation is witnessed on the occasion of annual "Urs-e-Mubarak" which is held on the 28th day of 'Iddul Azha' according to Islamic calendar. This celebration is now carried on by the fifth generation of the great saint " Shah Zahoor Ali Warsi".

Dargah of Makhdum Hazrat Sultan Ahmed Charampose, Biharsharif (Nalanda)
The biggest and the oldest building of Mohalla-Amber in the Biharsharif town (Nalanda), is Tomb of Hazarat Makhdum Sultan Saiyad Shah Ahmed Charampose Teg Barhana Rahmatulla Alaih. He was born in the year 1236 and passed away in 1335 (according to Islamic calendar 657 - 776 Hizri). He is ranked to a very high order among other Sufi saints and Auliahs. Many stories about the Saint are prevalent among people even today. According to one such story, the Saint was once on a visit to Tibbet. The Ruler and people of that state, for their misconceptions, tried to inflict harm on him. The saint, for his self-defense, just raised one of his fingers and heads of those mischievous people instantaneously fell off their bodies. After this incident, adjective of "Tang Barhana" (A Sword out of the Sheath) was added to the Saint's name. Another adjective of "Charampose" is added to his name for that, he always wore skin of a Dumba (specie different from ordinary goat), which was offered to him by Hazrat Hussain Pyare, his chief disciple.Thousands and thousand of people participate in the "Urs" celebrated here in memory of the Saint every year.

Dargah of Hazrat Shekh Sharifuddin Yahya Maneri, Biharsharif (Nalanda)
Another great dargah at Biharsharif is that of Makhdum Shah Sharif-ud-din, also called Makhdum- ul -Mulk, who died here in 1379. An inscription over entrance of the dargah shows that his tomb was built in 1569. It stands on the south bank of the river and is held in a great veneration by the local Mohammedans, who assemble here on the 5th day of Sawan to celebrate anniversary of his death.

Dargah of Hazrat Masar Dewan, Masurhi (Bhojpur)
The village, which is situated 5-kms east of Jagdishpur, has a 300 years old grave of a Muslim saint Masar Dewan. It is held as sacred by the Muslims.
Mazar of Mamu-Bhagina, Minapur

Shaistha Khan, the maternal uncle of Aurangzeb, erected a tomb known as Mamu Bhagana ki Kabar. It is situated near the pond of Shivai Singh in the mouza of Jarwa. Taj Khan built the tomb of Makhdum Shah Abul Fateh Sheikh Shuttari in mouza Tangaul. The tomb of Bar Khurdar Aulia Shaheb is near Hatsarganj police outpost. In Mohalla Khatte Ruknuddin there are two tombs, one of Hafiz Barkhurdar and to the east of it is the tomb of his disciple Ruknuddin Shaheb. The tomb of Hazrat Maohiuddin alias Pir Damaria Shaheb is in Minapur, which is built of marble. Other tombs of Kamaluddin Shaheb and Khaja Mohiuddin Chisti, disciple of Baba Fariduddin Gunj Shakar Multani are also here. Emperor Jahangir built the tomb of Syed Haji, son of Syed Dost Muhammad. The tomb of Hazrat Jalaluddin Abdul is to the east of Nepali temple. The tomb of Khwaja Bhil is on mouza Chakbhil near Bagmati. He was also a disciple of Baba Gunj Shakar.
Mazar of Hajrat Jandaha (Vaishali)
The grave of a revered Muslim Saint is still pointed out at Hazrat Jandaha, 32 kms east of Hajipur and about 14 kms north of Mahnar village in the Hajipur sub-division of the Vaishali district. The Saint gave this name to the place and the river that flows past it, was known as Diwan Sah Ali. It is said that one hot summer day he felt very thirsty, and asked a by-stander to fetch him some water. The man was rude enough to reply that there was no water to be had close by. At this the Shah got very angry, and in his anger called on the water to flow that way, saying ' Biah ' (Persian-- ' Come '). Immediately a river began to approach the place, cutting away intervening land and causing devastation and ruin to the villages as it advanced. This so terrified the neighbouring people that they came in a body and implored the Shah to have pity on them and cause the river to spare their lands. He then called out Jandah (do not drown) and the river stopped encroaching and began to flow quietly in its present channel. Thus the river was called Baya and the town Jandaha. This Diwan Sah Ali was himself the subject of miracle, performed on him in his infancy by his uncle, who was equally remarkable and he lived in Hajipur where his tomb is still pointed out. His name was Makhdum Shah Abdul Fatah. It is said that, on one occasion, during one of his fits of ecstasy, which lasted for long periods, he threw his nephew Shah Ali who was only six days old into the river Gandak calling on the river saint Khwaja Khizr to educate him and take care of him. After six years, when he had recovered his mother told him what he had done and what a grievous injury he had caused to his brother and sister-in-law, who had never ceased bewailing the loss of their only child. Thereupon Makhdum Shah told her not to grieve, and going to the river said--" Khawaja Khizr, give me back my nephew, whom I committed to your care six years ago. " On this, the river began to roll and out came the boy, roved and jeweled like prince. Though young, he was thoroughly conversant with all the religious laws, and afterwards became the famous Hazrat Shah Ali from whom Hazrat Jandaha got its name. There is a mosque situated a few steps away from the river appertaining to the 15th Century.

Mazar of Kanti (Muzaffarpur)
Kanti is an important and progressive village about 15 kms from Muzaffarpur to the west on the road between Motipur and Muzaffarpur. It is situated on a Man (water channel). There is a Mazarof a Muslim saint, which draws a large crowd throughout the year.

Mazar of Khwaja Pir's, Saran Khas (Saran)
A village in the Sadar subdivision 40 kms northeast of Chapra and 25 kms north of Manjhi. It contains extensive ancient remains now covered for the most part by cultivated fields. There is an abrupt rise at Makdum Shah's dargah, a little south of Harpur, which continues for a couple of miles south till it terminates somewhat more abruptly beyond Khwaja Pir's Mazar. On the east of this elevated site suns a stream known locally by two names, Gandaki and Saryu. This is well defined and may have been a channel made in ancient days for water supply. West of this and parallel to it, the high ground extends for an average width of not less than about half a kilometer. On approaching the southern end a pile near a mound is observed, on which are the remains of a brick building. It is learnt that this pile is the Ganj-i-Shahi-dan or martyr's heap near the traditional Rajas's kot. This indicates a desperate assault at some time on a Hindu stronghold. Further on, there are Khwaja Pir's Mazar, and two tombs on an open enclosure.

Mazar of Makdum Saiyed Hasan Chisti, Hasanpura (Siwan)
The village is situated about 21-kms south of Siwan on the Bank of Dhanai River. According to tradition, Makdum Saiyed Hasan Chisti, a saint who came from Arabia to India and settled here, founded this village. He also founded a Khankah (religious institution) here. The village contains remains of a large mosque and tomb of the Saint, which is visited by both Hindus and Muslims. The grave is a large open court to the west of the village.
Mazar of Hazrat Data Kambal Shah, Pakki Sarai (Muzaffarpur)
About 4 kms from Muzaffarpur there is a mausoleum of Hazrat Data Kambal Shah Rahamtullah Alaih who was a Muslim saint. It is said that he did hold position of a Qutab in the Muzaffarpur city in his times. Many stories of his miracles are prevalent in the society. The annual Urs of the saint is held here every year after the 7th day of the "Id" festival that continues for next 6 days. Thousands of devotees from every nook and corner of country come here to participate in the said Urs.

Mazar of Hazrat Bibi Kamaal Sahiba, Kako (Jehanabad)
The village is the headquarters of the block of the same name and is situated on the Jehanabad-Biharsharif road, about 10-kms east of Jehanabad railway station. According to a local legend, Ram Chandra's stepmother, Rani Kaikeyi of Ayodhya lived here for sometime and the village took its name after her. The village has also a Mazar of Hazrat Bibi Kamaal Sahiba, a great Muslim lady saint. It is said that this lady was the aunt of Hazrat Makhdum Saheb of Biharsharif and possessed divine powers.

Mazar of Sufi Ahmad Sajjad, Panhessa (Nalanda)
Panhessa is a village on Biharsharif - Rajgir road in the Nalanda district. This village was abode of Maulana Abul Mohasin Mohammad Sajjad who was a great religious scholar of Islamic pantheon. He was the founder of the Emarat-e-Sharia, Phulwarishariff that has the highest order among the Muslim's institution. Ahmad Sajjad was elder brother of the Maulana. He also was a great Sufi saint of his times. He was a very popular saint and the people had deep regards for him. Stories of the saint's miracles are still prevalent among natives of the village. His Mazar is located near a mosque in the village where Urs of the great Sufi Saint is celebrated every year on the 27th day of Muharram. Considerably large numbers of Muslims, as well as, Hindu devotees participate in the Urs.
TOMBS OF HISTORICAL & ARCHAEOLOGICAL SIGNIFIANCE

Mausoleum of Sher Shah (Rohtas)
The great mausoleum of Sher Shah is situated in the western outskirts of the town in the center of a large excavated tank or lake. This beautiful and impressive structure was built towards the middle of the 16th century. Hexagonal in shape and built of stone, it is the second highest tomb in India. It is a fine specimen of Pathan architecture that catches eyes of tourists at the very first glance.

Tomb of Hasan Khan Sur (Rohtas)
The old tomb of Hassan Khan Sur, father of Sher Shah is also known as Sukha Rauza. It is situated in the heart of the Sasaram town. This tomb contains inside its courtyard, a small mosque and a madarsa or school. Outside the compound wall on the western side there is a large stepped well with stone ghats on its southern and eastern sides, covered galleries on the north and west and a large well in its center.

Tomb of Chandan Shahid (Rohtas)
This is situated on the summit of the hill, hardly 30 feet to the east of the above cave. There is also an old mosque at the foot of the hill that contains an inscription referring to its construction during the reign of Jehangir in 1613 A.D.

Tomb of Pir Pahar (Munger)
About 5-kms east of the town is a hill called Pir Pahar, from the top of which a fine view of the surrounding country is obtained. The hill is called after an old Mohammedan saint or Pir. There are two old tombs side by side at the foot of the hill, on one of which there is an inscription to the memory of one Mary Anne Beckett, who died in 1832, while the other has a damaged inscription showing, till a few years ago, that it is in memory of a person named D'Oyly; the portion containing the name has now disappeared.

Tomb of Mulla Muhammad Said (Munger)
This is situated on the top of the bastion at the southwest angle of the fort. The Mulla was a Persian poet and had come to India from Mazandran near the Caspian Sea, during the reign of the Emperor Aurangazeb, who employed him as a tutor to his daughter Zibunnisa Begum. The Mulla died in 1704 A.D. and his tomb existed till the early years of this century, when it was demolished and the grave removed.

Tomb of Pir Shah Nufa (Munger)
The building is raised inside the southern gate of the fort on the top of a small mound, about 25' high. The building of the tomb consists of a domed tomb chamber with a prayer room or mosque and a rest room attached to it. A few carved stones are to be seen embedded in the low platform to the south of the tomb, and disfigured with unsightly holes or depressions made by those who believed in their efficacy to cure certain diseases of children.


Other objects of attraction : Pirganj
Gadh of Pir Saheb is situated 13 kms North from headquarters of the Supaul block and 4 kms South of headquarters of the Kishunpur block. This gadh is spread over an area of about 60 acres. There is a block of stone, which is said to be gradually increasing in shape and size and has become larger than the earlier. This stone has now interestingly become a sacred object. It is said that one can easily lift it up if he has a deep regard for it, on the contrary he cannot do so if he has even a little bit of disregard for the same. As said, earlier some thieves tried to steal away this stone but could not do so. They had to abandon the stone before they get out of the periphery, as they turned blind and the stone itself came back to it's original position.

Taken From
http://www.discoverbihar.bih.nic.in:80/pages/sufi_circuit.htm
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How to reach
By Air
(Air Route Map) Nearest Airport
Patna (61 kms) / Gaya (158 kms)
By rail (Rail Route Map) Nearest railheads Hazipur; Muzaffarpur(34 kms)
By road Connected by good roads with all Indian cities.
Where to Stay : Bihar State Tourism Development Corporation's Hotels at Vaishali and Muzaffarpur

Tariff range: Rs. 75/- for Dormitory bed and Rs.600/- for Double bedded room.
Other private Hotels, Rest houses and Dharmshalas are also available at Hajipur and Muzaffarpur.
Local Transport
Hired taxis / buses from Hajipur and Muzaffarpur.
Allah and Rasool Allah Sal lalahu Alaihi wa Sallam Aap ki har mushkil door kare. Ameen. Aap ki har jayes tamana puri kare. Ameen. Aap ki and Aap ke Ghar walon ki hayati ki darasi karne. Ameen. Ap aur Ghar walon ke upar tah qayamat tak Auliya Allah and buzurgan-e-deen ka saaya rahe. Ameen. Aap ko Ghar walon ko deen aur duniya me kamiyabee hasil kare. Ameen. Ya Rabbil 'Alameen.
Allah humma Salle 'ala Syedina wa Maulana wa Rahati Qulubina wa Shafiya Zunubina wa Tabeeba Zaherana wa Batina Mohammedinw wa 'Ala Alihi wo Ashabihi wo Auliyahi wa Ummatihi bi Rahmatika ya Ar-Rahmarraheem wal Hamdullilahi Rabbil 'Alameen.
Allah aur Rasool-e-Kareem, Sal-lal-lahu Alaihi Wa Sallam and Hazrat Allauddin Kaazan Shattari (RA) almaroof Hazrat Shaikh Mohammed Ulaa (RA), Hazrat Abul Fatah Hidayatullah Sarmast (RA) and Hazrat Shah Zahoor Haji Huzoor (RA)
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