Thursday, June 21, 2012

Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari


Bukhari's original name was Jalaluddin, kunya Abu Ahmed (ابواحمد), while Mir Surkh, Sharrif ullah, Mir Buzurg, Makhdum-ul-Azam, Jalal Akbar, Azim ulllah, Sher Shah, Jalal Azam and Surkh-Posh Bukhari were his titles. He was also known as Jalal Ganj. He was formally called Sayyid Jalaluddin Mir Surkh Bukhari as well as Shah Mir Surkh-Posh of Bukhara, Pir Jalaluddin Qutub-al-Aqtab, Sayyid Jalal or Sher Shah Sayyid Jalal.


He was born on Friday, 5th Dhu al-Hijjah 595 AH (Hijri) in Bukhara, present-day Uzbekistan. He was the son of Syed Ali Al-Moeed and grandson of Syed Ja’far Muhammed Hussain. He got his early education in Bukhara under the supervision and guidance of his father. He completed his education in his seventh year and is known to have performed several miracles even in childhood. 1,500 learned men had accepted him as their spiritual leader before he had actually reached manhood. 
He spent his whole life in traveling and several tribes, such as the Soomro, Samma, Chadhar, Sial, Daher, and Warar and others adopted Islam owing to his efforts.
His first marriage was with daughter of Syed Qasim in Bukhara, who bore Syed Ali and Syed Ja’far he had a total 22 sons. After the death of his first wife, Syeda Fatima in Bukhara, he along with his two sons migrated at the age of forty years from Bukhara to Bhakkar, Punjab in 635 AH (Hijri). However, as per the book "Mukhdoom Jahaniyan Jahangasht" written by Muhammad Ayub Qadri, both the brothers went back to Bukhara after some time. In Bhakkar, he married daughter of Sayyid Badruddin Bhakkari, Sayyida Sharifa BibiTáhirih, with her he had two sons Sayyid Sadaruddin Mohammed Ghaus and Sayyid Bahauddin Mohamed Masoom (their descendants are settled in and around Thatta, Uch and Lahore). One daughter of Sayyid Sadaruddin Mohammed Ghaus was married to Jahaniyan Jahangasht. Later after the death of his second wife he married another daughter of Sayyid Badruddin Bhakkari Sayyida Bibi Fatima Habiba Saeeda. She bore him his youngest son Syed Ahmed Kabir (father of Jahaniyan Jahangasht).
Sayyid Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari died at the age of 95 years on 19th Jumada al-awwal 690 AH (Hijri) (20 May 1291 CE) in Uch Sharif, Punjab.


Bukhari's history and pedigree are given in extend in such works as the Mazher-i-Jalali, the Akber-ul-Akhyar, the Rauzat-ul-Ahbab, Maraij-ul-Walayat, Manaqabi Qutbi, the Siyar-ul-Aqtar, the Siyar-ul-Arifeen, the Manaqib-ul-Asifya etc. These books only exist in manuscript and are generally found in the possession of Bukhari Sayyids. Sayyid Jalal's life is given in brief below:
He also met Chengiz Khan, the Mongol, and endeavoured to convert him to Islam, but Chengiz Khan ordered him to be burnt alive. The fire however turned into a bush of roses and on seeing this miracle Chengiz Khan became inclined to be more sympathetic towards Islam and Muslims. Chengiz offered to give his daughter in marriage to Hazrat Jalaludin. He at first refused to take Chengiz's daughter as his wife but then he heard a divine voice say that his descendants would spread far and wide and were destined to be Qutubs "saints" of the world, he consented to the marriage. This proved to be true as his descendants are quite numerous, and many Sayyid families in the Punjab, Sindh, the United Provinces (Uttar Pradesh), Kachchh and Hyderabad Deccan, claim descent from him, and trace their origins to Uchch Sharrif. His two male issues from his second wife, Fatima, the daughter of Sayyid Qasim Hussein Bukhari, Sayyid Ali and Sayyid Jaffar, are buried in tombs at Bukhara. He brought his son Sayyid Baha-ul-Halim with him to Sindh and he settled in Uchch in 1244 CE.
Sayyid Jalaluddin afterwards married Zohra, the daughter of Sayyid Badar-u-Din Bhakkari, of whom was born Sayyid Mohammad Ghaus. On Zohra's death he married the second daughter of Sayyid Badar-u-Din Bhakkari, who give birth to Sayyid Ahmed Kabir, the father of Makhdoom Jahaniyan Jahangasht and Makhdoom Sadruddin. Firuz Shah Tughlaq sent the Son of Makhdoom Sadruddin,Syed Hassamuddin Hassan Bukhari to Kara-Manikpur and he is buried in Parsaki or Parsakhi,The Kokhraj(Koh-e-Kharaj)OR Koh-e-Inam in the district of Allahabad (near Kara-Manikpur) and his descendents are presently found in pargana Chail of Allahabad and are known as Naqvi ul-Bukhari Sada'at of Chail ) total he had 22 sons. In 642 AH (Hijri) when Nasiruddin Mahmud, son of Shams-u-Din Altamash, was Sultan (ruler) of the kingdom of Delhi, Hazrat Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari reached Uch, which was then called Deogarh, and its people began through him, to embrace Islam. The Raja Deo Singh, its ruler, was greatly incensed at this, and spared no effort to cause him trouble, but being overawed by the Sayyid's miracles he fled to Marwar. Innumerable miracles are attributed to him. The reverence which he enjoyed may be judged from the fact that rulers used to wait upon him at Uch, for example in 642 AH (Hijri). Nasiruddin Mahmud, the eldest son of Shams-ud-din Altamash, paid him visit at Uch.
He died in 690 AH (Hijri) in the reign of Ghayas-u-Din Balban, and was buried at Sonak Bela 3 miles of Uch, but the river Ghaggar reaching quite close to his grave; his descendants removed his remains to Uch and buried them at the place where the shirne Hazrat Sadar-u-Din Rajan Qattal is now situated. Again in 1027 AH (Hijri) the then Sajjada Nashin Makhdoom Hamid son of Muhammad Nassir-u-Din, removed the remains, buried them in the present spot and erected a building over them. In 1261 AH, Nawab Muhammad Bahawal Khan III made some additions to it and built a tank and well, called the khan sir, in compound of the shrine. In 1300 AH, Nawab Sadiq Muhammad Khan IV had it repaired and made some additions. Both Hindus and Muslims in and outside the state have a firm faith in this Khanqah and all kinds of vows are made there.


He spread Islam to Sindh and Southern Punjab and is responsible for conversion of Samma tribes among others to Islam. He also laid the foundations of a religious school in Uch (also spelled Uchch). He moved back to Bukhara once and later returned to finally settle in Uchch in 1244 CE.
He was founder of the "Jalali " Section of the "Suhrawardiyya" Sufi Order, "Jalali" being named after him. Some of his successors in the line went to Gujerat and became very famous there. This includes Jalaluddin bin Ahmad Kabir, popularly known as Makhdoom Jahaniyan Jahangasht (d. 1384 CE), who made thirty-six visits to Mecca; Abu Muhammad Abdullah, popularly known as Burhanuddin Qutb-e-Alam (d. 1453 CE) and Sayyed Muhammad Shah Alam (d. 1475 CE).
It is narrated that Makhdoom Syed Jalaluddin Bukhari had urged Genghis Khan to spare the innocent people and embrace Islam. Enraged by this bold act of Jalaluddin, Genghis Khan ordered that he might be thrown in fire. But to the utter surprise of Genghis Khan and his courtiers the fire did not hurt Jalaluddin Bukhari.
The great pioneers of the 13th century Sufi movement in South Asia were four friends known as "Chaar Yaar":
  1. Baba Farid Shakar Ganj of Pakpattan [1174-1266 CE)
  2. Hazrat Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari of Uchch [c. 1199-1291 CE)
  3. Baha-ud-din Zakariya of Multan [1170-1267 CE) and
  4. Lal Shahbaz Qalandar of Sehwan {1177–1274 CE)
It is said that 17 leading tribes of Punjab accepted Islam at the hands of Baba Farid. Some of these tribes were Kharal, Dhudhyan, Tobian and also Wattu, a Rajput tribe. Hazrat Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari converted the Samma tribes of Sindh as stated earlier, the Sial, Chadhar, Daher and Warar tribes of Southern Punjab and Sindh, and several other tribes while Shahbaz Qalandar had a great following in Multan and Northern Sindh.
Present city of Jhang is also said to have been founded by Hazrat Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari (in 1134 CE according to some sources). Its first inhabitants were Sials who were followers ( mureed) of Hazrat Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari . It was then destroyed by the river and re-founded during the reign of Aurangzeb by his descendant Syed Mehboob Alam Naqvi-ul Bukrari Al-Maroof Shah Jewna who asked his (mureed) followers to settle again in that area.
He is also reported to have met Makhdum Shah Daulah, a saint buried in Bengal, at Bukhara where he presented Makhdum Shah Daulah with a pair of gray pigeon (Common Indian gray pigeon) as a token of good wishes. From Bukhara the Makhdum Shah Daulah party proceeded towards Bengal and settled at Shahzadpur, a locality under the jurisdiction of a Hindu king whose kingdom extended up to Bihar. The king ordered for the expulsion of Makhdum Shah Daulah and his companions. Consequently there ensued a severe fight between the two parties in which Makhdum Shah Daulah with all his followers, except Khwaja Nur, embraced martyrdom and is buried beside the old Shahi mosque at Shahzadpur.
Mai Heer of the Sial tribe and of the "Heer Ranjha" fame was daughter of Choochak Sial who was disciple of Hazrat Syed Ahmed Kabir, son of Hazrat Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari.


Sayyid Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari was Naqvi Sayyid. "Syed" or "Sayyid" is an honorific title that is given to males accepted as descendants of Muhammad through his grandsons, Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali, who were the sons of his daughter Fatimah and son-in-law and Caliph Ali ibn Abi Talib. Whereas Naqvi is a family name used by the "Syed" or "Sayyid" who are through the lineage of Ali al-Hadi (Arabic: الإمام علي الهادي).
His family was one of the most revered and prominent Muslim families during the rule of the Turkish dynasties in India including the Tughlaq and Mamluk dynasties of Delhi. His descendants are called Naqvi al-Bukhari. The part of Uchch where this family settled is called "Uchch Bukharian" to this day.Some of his family members migrated to Biloot Sharif and the Tribal Areas of Kurram, Orakzai Agency and Kohat District. The well known spiritual head of the Bukhari's Syed in Kurram Agency was Syed Pahlawan Shah who was the son of Syed Hussain Ali Shah popularly know in the spiritual circles as Fakir ul Fukara. While in Orakzai Agency Hazrat Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari was presented by Syed Pahlwan Shah's elder brother Syed Gul Badshah who was both a worldly and spiritual head of his followers. Syed Pahlawan Shah was against the British rule in the Sub-Continent and his consistent resistance towards English Lords made him an alarmingly acclaimed figure for the British Political Agents in Kurram Agency . He and his followers proved as a lead wall against the tyrannic rules and laws of the British in the Tribal Areas of Kurram and Orakzai Agencies . His self evident miracles made him a legendary figure among his followers in both of the Tribal Areas. There are magnificent tombs of Hazrat Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari descendants and disciples all across Punjab, Sindh and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. These include Hazrat Jahaniyan Jahangasht, Hazrat Rajan Qittal; Hazart Shah Esa Qital (Biloot), Bibi Jawindi (c. 1492 CE, she is great grandauther of Hazrat Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari ), Hazrat Mir Mohammad Masoom (Forefather of Jam Bokhari Naqvi family) and Channan Pir among others. Tomb of Bibi Jawindi and tomb and Mosque of Jalaluddin Bukhari are on the tentative list of UNESCO World Heritage site since 2004, they are also listed in the 1998 World Monuments Watch by the World Monuments Fund, and again listed in 2000 and 2002. Many of his disciples are buried in Bhambore and Makli near Thatta.

Family Lineage:

According to "Mara'at Jalali", written by Syed Khalil Ahmad Bukhari Hassami (1918) and Tareekh Gulzar Shams and "Malfuzul Makhdoom" by Syed Jalaluddin,Sayyid Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari's family lineage is as under:
  1. Sayyid Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari
  2. Sayyid Ali Al-Moeed
  3. Sayyid Ja’far Muhammed Hussain
  4. Sayyid Muhammad
  5. Sayyid Mahmood (he moved from Mashhad and settled in Bukhara)
  6. Sayyid Ahmed (his other son Sayyid Ali is forefather of Nizamuddin Auliya)
  7. Sayyid Abdulallh (he moved from Samarra and settled in Mashhad)
  8. Sayyid Ali Asghar,
  9. Sayyid Ja’far (he died in 271 AH (Hijri) and is buried in Samarra)
  10. Imam Ali al-Hadi
  11. Imam Muhammad al-Taqi
  12. Imam Ali ar-Ridha
  13. Imam Musa al-Kadhim
  14. Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq
  15. Imam Muhammad al-Baqir
  16. Imam Zayn al-Abidin
  17. Imam Husayn ibn Ali
  18. Imam Ali ibn Abi-Talib
There were many religious leaders and sufia saints in his lineage. Among them Hazrat Shah Mohammad Ghouse migrated from Uchch and settled down in the Punjab, Hazrat Shah Jamal of Ichchra, Lahore' and numerous others.
Part of his family moved back to Turkistan and there were inter-marriages with the Tatar Mongol ruling clan of Bukhara. . It is said that he was married to Genghis Khan's daughter as well. A branch of the family moved subsequently to what is now Bursa in Turkey..
One of Syed Jalaluddin Bukhari's descendants, Makhdoom Syed Fateh Muhammad Shah Bukhari al-maroof Ghazi Baba, travelled to Peshawar, and settled down in western suburbs of Peshawar in a village called Wadpagga Sharif. Syed Fateh Muhammad was the 15th descendant of Syed Nasiruddin Mehmood, who was the son of Makhdoom Jahanian. He had six sons, the eldest being Syed Abdul Wahab Shah, while the youngest one was Syed Abdullah Shah. Four of Makhdoom Syed Fateh's sons settled down in Wadpagga Sharif, while the other two moved to nearby areas, where they settled down. Wadpagga Village comprised predominantly of Bukhari Syeds and the Shrine of Ghazi Baba is the site of attraction of millions of his disciples, where they hold an annual Urs. Ghazi Baba is a contemporary of Mian Omar, a saint buried in Chamkani village in Peshawar. Some of the prominent elders of wadpagga village include Syed Rifaqat Ali Shah Bukhari, Syed Sadaqat Hussain Shah, Pir Syed Qaim Shah Bukhari, Makhdoom Syed Dawood Bukhari and Makhdoom Syed Basharat Ali Shah.

Jams of Dreg lineage (Bokhari Al-Naqvi Sadat in Dreg, Dera Ghazi Khan)

The word "Jam" means Sardar, which is derived from Sindhi ancient language. There are two clans of Jams. One clan consists of Jams in Balochistan and Sindh. They are from the Jamoot tribe. Another clan lives in Multan and surrounding areas, especially Jams of Dreg, D.G Khan. These are the descendants of Hazrat Sayyid Bahauddin Mohamed Masoom who is of the 22 sons of Hazrat Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari and trace their origin to Uch Sharif. Hazrat Sayyid Bahauddin Mohamed Masoom is the source of information about "Mith Waly" in Multan. He is the descendant of Hazrat Hassan Jalaludin Bokhari, so the people belonging to this lineage are called “Jam Bokhari Naqvi”. Mostly they live in the Multan City, in an area called "Shah Yousaf Gardez Mohallah" and known as "Mithy Waly". The figures shows that the forefathers of Jam Bukharis Naqvis (Mithy Waly), that live in the heart of the Multan city came from Dreg, Dera Ghazi Khan, because of the uncertain conditions there and starting to live besides the very famous place of Multan City, the Mizar of Hazrat Shah Yousaf Gardez R.A after arriving to Multan from Dreg. The three famous Bazurgs of this lineage are Mitha, Kura and Mohabbat shah. Mohammad Mitha and Mohammad Kurra both are the sons of Jam Mohammad Osman Shah of Dreg. He was a reputable person of his territory. He was a very pious and God fearing man. Mohammad Osman’s family lineage traced to Hazrat Sayyid Bahauddin Mohamed Masoom R.A, Uch Sharif, who was the son of Syed Hassan Jalaluddin Bukhari. After the death of Jam Mohammad Osman Shah; the head of the Jam Bokhari Naqvi family, people raised against his family. He had two sons and three daughters. Mitha and Kurra were his sons. Family of Mohammad Mitha is known as "Mitha Family" and family of Kurra is known as "Khurra Family". By seeing the unfavorable conditions, both brothers escaped from Dreg and migrated to Multan and started to live here. One of his cousin Mohabbat Shah also escaped with them. Multan,“Kury Wala”, became associated with the name of Kura. Muhammad Mitha, Muhammad Kura and Mohabbat Shah are buried besides “Bagh Langy Khan” which is famous with the name of Langy Khan.
Family lineage of Mitha is as below:
  1. Imam Ali ibn Abi-Talib,
  2. Imam Husayn ibn Ali,
  3. Imam Zayn al-Abidin,
  4. Imam Muhammad al-Baqir,
  5. Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq,
  6. Imam Musa al-Kadhim,
  7. Imam Ali ar-Ridha,
  8. Imam Muhammad al-Taqi,
  9. Imam Ali al-Hadi,
  10. Sayyid Ja’far (he died in 271 AH (Hijri) and is buried in Samarra,
  11. Sayyid Ali Asghar,
  12. Sayyid Abdulallh (he moved from Samarra and settled in Mashhad,
  13. Sayyid Ahmed (his other son Sayyid Ali is forefather of Nizamuddin Auliya),
  14. Sayyid Mahmood (he moved from Mashhad and settled in Bukhara,
  15. Sayyid Muhammad,
  16. Sayyid Ja’far Muhammed Hussain.
  17. Sayyid Ali Al-Moeed,
  18. Hazrat Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari,
  19. Sayyid Bahauddin Mir Mohamed Masoom,
  20. Mir Mohammad Kabir
  21. Mir Mohammad Ahmed
  22. Shahabuddin
  23. Mir Sher Ali
  24. Mohammad Ishaq Shah
  25. Abu Mohammad Ferozuddin Shah
  26. Feroz-ud-Din Shah
  27. Saddar-ud-Din Shah
  28. Rukun-ud-Din Shah
  29. Salahuddin Shah
  30. Saddar-ud-Shah
  31. Nizam-ud-Din Shah
  32. Nasir-ud-Din Shah
  33. Abu Muhammad Osman
  34. Mohammad Osman
  35. Mohammad Mitha


He was buried in a small town outside Uchch, but his tomb was damaged by floods, so in 1617 CE, his shrine was rebuilt in Mohalla Bukhari in Uchch by the Nawab of Bahawalpur, Bahawal Khan II. In the 18th century, the Abbasi Nawabs annexed Uchch into the princely state of Bahawalpur. The shrine lies a short walk away from the cemetery and is also built on a promontory, so one can look out onto the rolling plains below and the desert in the distance. To one side is an old mosque covered with blue-tile work and in front of a pool of water is the tomb proper. A carved wooden door leads into the musty room containing the coffin of Hazrat Syed Bukhari.


  1. Assalamu'alaikum

    Dear Tariq - I chanced upon your website. I have been writing history of the Shaikhs & Sayyids of Allahabad iN UP India. You may like to see my website wherein I have mentioned about Sayyid Hisamuddin Hasan Bukhari who is buried in Parsakhi in Chail Allahabad. My website is

    Can we work together for a better future ? I am in search of some books on Shaikh Bahauddin Zakariya , Can you please help me.

    Regards, Khalid

    1. W-Salam,

      How are you? hopping fine there
      Thanks for appreciation. I also see your blog good work there keep it up,

      and about work together is good think i like it and want to work for better results.


      Muhammad Tariq

    2. Assalamualaykum I am descendent of Syed Sadruddin Mohammad Ghaus son of Syed Jalaluddin Surkh Posh Bukhari. The last thing I know is Syed Sadruddin My Great grandfather moved to the than Punjab I want to know where is he burried

  2. dear for more detail contact us :

    1. @Hassal Sharif

      Thanks for update links. I will concern these sites.

      Thanks for visit and comments.


      Muhammad Tariq

  3. Muhtarm Tariq Sahib,
    Asalam Walikom Wa Rehmatullah,
    I am a bit puzzled your blog has the name of “Ghazi Syed Shah Fateh Muhammad Bukhari {Peshawar, Pakistan}” whereas the whole blogs seems to have been copied from wikipedia’s article on “Syed Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari” ( ).
    I have not been unable to square off this anomaly, i.e. name of blog and it content can you elucidate? and secondly since the contents are taken verbatim from the article cited above shouldn’t you have shown the intellectual courtesy of acknowledging the source?
    Yours sincerely
    Syed Farrukh Ehsan Bokahri

    1. I think this article is mix of msny other sources. It is a good compilation but needs references of the material taken from. Further, there are less information on the Bukharis settled in central and othet parts of Punjab. I found it a useful compilation, though.

  4. This comment has been removed by the author.

    1. ALI ALI .
      Yes Syed Farrukh Ehsan Bukhari u r right...Muhammad Tariq copied ths whole blogs

  5. Bratham Tariq,

    If you forgot then you can acknowledge it now, we all forget thinks. If make a mistake, we all to make mistake.

    But remember what makes it wrong is doing it when you know it is wrong.

    Get bigger, bigger than egomaniacs.

    Syed Farrukh Ehsan Bokhari

  6. Asalamualikum Tariq bhai mujhai ek answer hona hai and ye maira email address hai bhai saab log walli ka barrai mai ye woo boltai mujhai achanai dekta ye mujhai ek strong ayyat milsakti kya? ye maira email address hai habeebomer07" - ki walli duniya mai zinda hai or rahingai inshallah

  7. any how this is the nice try to educate people about this great saint

    Aamir Bokhari

  8. Salam i m Syed Mubashir Hassan Shah Bukhari.We are also the descendants of Peer Syed Jalaudin Bukhari (RA).It is a nice effort to educate people about the life of a WaliULLAH. Though this article has been copied from Wikipedia still i belief in your good intentions because inamal amalo bin niyatte.U have tried to praise shah sahib (RA)contributions in spreading islam in indopak subcontinent, Afghanistan and Bukhara.There are many things in Shah Sahib (RA)'s life which wikipedia can never know. I am planning to go to Uch Sharif in near future INSHALLAH also compiled some some research material in order to write a comprehensive article or book on shah sahib(RA) life.Once i will complete the research i will share to all of u.

    Syed Mubashir Hassan Bukhari

  9. As salam alaikum WA rahematullahi WA barkatahu
    mera Nam sayyed liyakat ali
    mere walid sayyed ashraf ali
    unke walid sayyed meer inayat ali
    unke walid meer khairat ali bukhari
    unke walid meer sayyed aalam bukhari
    yaha tak hame hamare aaba O ajdad ke Nam pata hai ham bukhari Sadat hai sadiyo se nagpur shaher Maharashtra India ke karib rahte aa rahe hain hame apna nasab name ki talash hain kya aap hamari kuchh madat kar sakte hain
    Sayyed liyakat ali al bukhari con.+91 9326910687 india

  10. Ek khas bat ye hain ki jaha ka hamara aabai watan hain uska Nam pauni hai
    jaha ek buzurg mamrez sha shahid jinhe sayyed ahemad qabir rahematullah alaih ke Nam se bhi Jana jata hain
    hamare shaher me inka sare mibarak hain aur wardha paunar me jisme Mubarak
    aapke shajre me syed ahemad kabir ka bhi Nam hai

  11. Assalamualaykum my name is Syed Gulrez Naqvi I am from Bhopal M.P India Alhamdulillah I am descendent of Syed Sadruddin Mohammad Ghaus son of Syed Jalaluddin Surkh Posh Bukhari. The last thing I know is Syed Sadruddin My Great grandfather moved to the than Punjab I want to know where is he burried. If anyone here can help with further I shall be highly grateful

  12. You can pls get in touch with

  13. Bibi jiwandi ka maqbra mai saddaruden mohd ghose ki qaber hai