Tuesday, April 29, 2014

Japan plans to provide $200 mil. in aid to Palestinian

Japan plans to provide about $200 million, or around ¥20.4 billion, in aid to the Palestine Authority as part of efforts to promote Middle East peace talks, a government source said.
The administration is apparently aiming to mend ties with the United States, following Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s visit to the war-linked Yasukuni Shrine in December by supporting U.S. efforts for Middle East peace ahead of President Barack Obama’s visit to Japan in April.
In a rare move, the United States expressed disappointment over Abe’s visit.
The $200 million in aid will be used for Palestinian fiscal consolidation, as well as for roads and other infrastructure development, hospital construction and food aid, the source said Thursday.
Japan has provided a total of around $1.4 billion in aid to the Palestine Authority since 1993.
As human support measures, the government will expand its project to develop Palestinians’ human resources by asking Malaysia and Indonesia to accept Palestinian farming and tourism trainees, while Japan meanwhile will send its own trainers there.

Iran may become top gas importer by 2025, says official

Iran is on course to become the world’s largest importer of natural gas by 2025 unless it can rein in rampant domestic demand, the head of research at the country’s energy ministry told a conference in Tehran.
Iran sits on the world’s largest gas reserves, according to estimates by BP, and Iranian energy officials have boasted for years about becoming a top gas exporter soon.
Thawing relations with the West since President Hassan Rowhani came to power in mid-2013 have revived hopes that Iran may one day help meet growing gas demand around the world.
But slow progress in developing those reserves over the last decade has stunted gas exports. Meanwhile, domestic consumption is surging as the gas network has grown and more gas is needed to sustain output from ageing oilfields.
The country faces severe shortages because production has failed to keep pace with residential and industrial demand.
Unless something drastic is done to control use, which has forced Iranian power plants to burn billions of dollars of relatively costly liquid fuels, the holder of the world’s biggest gas reserves could become the largest importer.
“Should the current energy consumption procedure not change, by 2025 Iran will be the largest natural gas importer in the world,” Hamid Katouzian, head of Iran’s Ministry of Petroleum Research Center, was quoted by Mehr news agency as saying on Saturday.
One of the biggest problems Iran faces is that its fossil fuel-fired power plants have efficiency rates of just 13 percent, compared to 60-70 percent achieved by modern plants in other parts of the world, Katouzian said.
In an effort to restrain rampant consumption growth, the previous government of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad began slashing subsidies on a range of fuels in late 2010.
The partial subsidy cuts were successful in rationalizing fuel use and reducing waste, but a second wave of price hikes planned for mid-2012 was shelved out of concern it could prove too painful for a population already suffering a sharp drop in living standards.
Iran’s finances have been under intense pressure over the last two years because of international economic sanctions imposed over its disputed nuclear program.
Over the last six months the new government has been increasingly critical of cheap energy policies that have exacerbated consumption growth and strangled state energy company investments.
Rowhani’s government is preparing a politically risky increase in domestic fuel prices, trying to lighten the burden of multi-billion-dollar subsidies on an economy severely damaged by Western sanctions.
Katouzian said he hoped parliament’s plans for cutting energy waste would help prevent Iran from becoming the world’s biggest gas importer a decade from now, but added all industry leaders and Iranian householders would have to cooperate.

Tourism sector to create 1.8m jobs by 2020

The tourism sector is set to create about 1.3 million jobs by 2015 and about 1.8 million by 2020, offering direct employment opportunities in its sub-sectors and indirect jobs in areas induced by tourism-related activity, according to the annual report of the Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency (SAMA) for 2012-13.
The 49th SAMA report released recently said: “The Saudi Commission for Tourism and Antiquities (SCTA) evaluation has confirmed the tourism sector’s ability to provide a growing number of direct jobs in the tourism sub-sectors as well as indirect employment opportunities induced by tourism activity in other economic sectors linked to the tourism sector, in addition to job opportunities that could be developed in subsequent periods as a result of the economic spending cycle in all the sectors that are related to tourism development.”
The report said the tourism sector had created job opportunities for the citizens where, according to an SCTA estimate, the number of direct jobs in the tourism sector in 2012 amounted to about 709,000, an increase of 5.9 percent from the previous year with 670,000 jobs, distributed across the tourism sub-sectors.
“The percentage of Saudization in these jobs was about 26.7 percent compared to about 26.4 percent in the previous year,” an SCTA official said Saturday.
The SAMA report covers various areas of the domestic economy, including monetary developments, banking activity, capital market, prices, public finance, national accounts, foreign trade and balance of payments.
The report elaborated that the share of domestic tourism in the the country's GDP in 2012 increased by 6.8 percent compared to 2011 to reach SR70.2 billion as the percentage of the nonoil sector’s contribution to the GDP touched slightly higher with an “added-value” from 7.3 percent to 7.4 percent during 2012.
Although the report indicated a decrease of 8.2 percent on spending by domestic tourists “excluding expenses on international transport” in 2012 at SR32.6 billion compared to SR 35.5 billion in 2011, it however, showed that the volume of inbound tourism spending in 2012 rose by 16.8 percent to SR57.2 billion, compared to about SR49 billion in the previous year.
The report said that accommodation facilities ranked first for incoming tourists’ spending at SR19.7 billion, up by 34.5 percent in 2012, while shopping came second at about SR 15.5 billion representing 27 percent of the total expenditure for the same year.
The 49th SAMA report also refers to the SCTA’s efforts in the development of the hotel sector, as the number of hotels operating in the Kingdom by the end of 2012 reached 1,098 hotels of different grades, and the number of furnished residential units in the Kingdom by the end of 2012 reached about 1,971, distributed across various cities in the Kingdom.
“The biggest share of these are found in the Makkah province reaching 522 units (26.5 percent), followed by the Riyadh region, (26.3 percent) with 519 units,” the report added.
Commenting on the report, an SCTA official said that the commission is devoted to developing the tourism sector in the Kingdom and is working on a number of programs to boost tourism investment as the sector is considered a key tributary to the national economy and a creator of jobs for citizens.
He asserted that the Kingdom will focus on the “tourism development companies and work is under way for concluding the final procedures for the establishment of the Al-Ogair Development Company with a capital of SR2.71 billion. The destination is located in the Al-Ahsa Municipality and established as a joint-stock company by the public and private sectors.”
The sector will also establish the Saudi Company for Tourism Investment and Development as a Saudi holding Company with a capital of SR 200 million.
Furthermore, the commission has signed agreements with several public funds such as the Saudi Credit and Saving Bank, the Saudi Industrial Development Fund, Agricultural Development Fund, Centennial Fund and the Human Resource Development Fund to finance the tourism medium and small enterprises.
According to the official, the cooperation between SCTA and the Saudi Credit and Saving Bank and a number of other funds have resulted in the financing of a number of tourism and heritage projects worth over SR250 million.

Ruble Dives to Historic Low Against Euro-Dollar Basket

Russia’s currency fell to a historic low on Monday as stock markets in Moscow lost more than 9 percent of their value minutes after trading began.
Such a crash was widely predicted by experts after Russia approved the use of military force in Ukraine on Saturday, prompting widespread condemnation from the international community.
Responding to what it described as “risks to financial stability,” Russia’s central bank increased interest rates by 1.5 percent in a surprise move Monday. The hike follows an 18-month period when the regulator left interest rates unchanged.
Officials in the United States and Europe have told Russia that its actions in Ukraine could lead to possible economic sanctions and asset freezes.
The dollar rose more than 50 kopeks to 36.35 rubles and the euro climbed 55 kopeks to 51.2 rubles in morning trading, according to data from the Moscow Exchange. The ruble, which has fallen steadily this year, is now at record lows against both the ruble and the dollar.
The declines brought the Russian currency to levels outside the trading corridor mandated by the central bank, causing the regulator to announce that it was widening the target band by 20 kopeks.
The falling ruble was accompanied by plunging equities on Russia’s stock exchanges.
The MICEX bourse was down more than 9 percent under an hour after trading began at 10 a.m., while the dollar-denominated RTS lost over 10 percent.
Major Russian companies saw millions of dollars of value wiped out.
Shares in state-owned gas giant Gazprom, which is considered particularly vulnerable to events in Ukraine because of its extensive pipeline system in the country, fell by almost 11 percent.
“[We are] understandably seeing sellers across the board,” one major US investment bank based in Moscow wrote in a note to clients Monday.
Trading of steel and mining company Mechel was temporarily halted as its shares fell 26 percent. Russia’s two largest banks, Sberbank and VTB, lost 8.2 percent and 11.2 percent respectively.
In one of the bluntest warnings of economic consequences for Moscow if it continues military action in Ukraine, US Secretary of State John Kerry told NBC’s “Meet the Press” show on Sunday that the United States and some of its allies were “prepared to go to the hilt to isolate Russia.”
“They’re prepared to put sanctions in place, they’re prepared to isolate Russia economically, the ruble is already going down. Russia has major economic challenges,” he said.
The ruble’s sharp falls on Monday in Moscow have compounded this year’s declines. The Russian currency has lost almost 9 percent of its value against the central bank’s euro-dollar basket since the beginning of 2014.
As the scale of Russia’s military incursion in the southern Ukrainian region of Crimea grew last week, Russia’s MICEX Index lost 2.8 percent and the ruble declined 1.7 percent against the dollar.
“The market’s collapse is a vote of no confidence in [Russian President Vladimir] Putin,” former deputy central banker Sergei Aleksashenko wrote on Twitter on Monday. “Russian business and its population are voting against the authorities’ recklessness.”

Gaza unemployment rises to 39%

Unemployment rose to 39 percent of the workforce in the Gaza Strip as a result of the Egyptian destruction of underground tunnels between Egypt and Gaza, the Ministry of the Economy in Gaza said on Sunday.
"This means that the number of jobless people in Gaza has risen to 140,000," Hatem Uweida, the ministry undersecretary, told a press conference.
He recalled that the unemployment stood at only 27.3 percent during the first quarter of 2013.
Egypt has started an all-out crackdown on a network of smuggling tunnels on the border between the Sinai Peninsula and the Gaza Strip following the ouster of elected Egyptian president Mohamed Morsi in July.
The army-backed interim authorities in Egypt accuse the Gaza-ruling Hamas of involvement in attacks in Egypt. Hamas has vehemently denied the allegations.
Gaza officials like Uweida say as much as 40 percent of the needs of the costal enclave, which has been reeling under an Israeli blockade since 2007, used to come through the border tunnels.
He said Gaza`s gross domestic product also fell down by 4.6 percent during the third quarter of 2013, compared with the second quarter of the same year.

Forbes Top 10 Billionaire Cities

Moscow has held onto its title as the billionaire capital of the world. This is the fourth time in the past five years that Russia’s capital stays ahead of New York on top of our list of billionaire haunts – those cities that are the primary homes to the most billionaires. Eighty-four of the world’s richest, worth a total of over $366 billion, call Russia’s most populous city home. New York City continues to rank second, with 62 billionaires worth $280 billion. London and Hong Kong tie for third place, with 43 billionaires each.
This year, only two American cities make the top: New York and Dallas, home to 18 billionaires and tied in the last position with Paris.
Hong Kong retains its title as the most popular city among billionaires in Asia, with 43 billionaires. Beijing knocked out San Francisco and is back to the top 10 most popular residences for billionaires. China’s capital is home to 21 billionaires, 6 more than last year. Mumbai and Seoul are other Asian cities included in the top 10.
The 37 billionaires living in Istanbul, where Europe and Asia collide, are the poorest among those in the top 10 billionaire cities. Istanbul's 37 billionaires are up from 30 billionaires last year with total worth of $65,400,000. Total number of billionaires in Turkey is 43 according to the report.
The average billionaire in the only city sitting across two continents is worth $1.7 billion, two times less than the average fortune of a billionaire living in London, for instance.
France’s capital is the place with the highest average net worth among billionaires. The average billionaire living in Paris is worth $6.81 billion, an astonishing $2.2 billion more than the average billionaire in any other city in the world.

Singapore named the world's most expensive city

Singapore has topped 131 cities globally to become the world's most expensive city to live in 2014, according to the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU).
The city's strong currency combined with the high cost of running a car and soaring utility bills contributed to Singapore topping the list.
It is also the most expensive place in the world to buy clothes.
Singapore replaces Tokyo, which topped the list in 2013.
Other cities making up the top five most expensive cities to live in are Paris, Oslo, Zurich and Sydney, with Tokyo falling to sixth place.
The EIU's Worldwide Cost of Living Survey is a relocation tool that uses New York city as a base. It looks at more than 400 individual prices.
Soaring Asia
The top 10 cities this year have been dominated by Asian and Australasian cities as well as some in Europe.
"Improving sentiment in structurally expensive European cities combined with the continued rise of Asian hubs means that these two regions continue to supply most of the world's most expensive cities," said the editor of the report, Jon Copestake.
"But Asian cities also continue to make up many of the world's cheapest, especially in the Indian subcontinent."
Most Asian cities that top the list are there for predominantly higher costs of groceries. Tokyo is still at the top of the list for everyday food items.
Inexpensive India

However, not all Asian cities are tough on the wallet.
India's major cities - including Mumbai and New Delhi - were found to be among the least expensive in the world.
Mumbai's prices are kept low by large income inequality.
The low wages of many of the city's workers keep spending low, and government subsidies have helped them stay that way.
Outside of the subcontinent, Damascus in Syria saw the largest drop, becoming the fourth cheapest city in the world as the country's ongoing conflict has led to plummeting prices.
While the EIU's survey takes into account the cost of living, other firms employ different research methods.
Mercer conducts research to determine the most expensive cities for expatriate living.
It found that in 2013, Luanda, Angola was the hardest on expatriate wallets due to the difficulty of finding adequate secure housing, and the high price of imported goods.

EU freezes assets of ousted Ukrainian leader and 17 others

The European Union froze the assets on Thursday of ousted Ukrainian president Viktor Yanukovich, former prime minister Mykola Azarov and 16 other senior Ukrainian officials suspected of misusing state funds and violating human rights.
In a legal filing published in the European Union's Official Journal, the EU said that "all funds and economic resources belonging to, owned, held or controlled" by the people listed was now frozen within the 28-nation union.
The announcement follows a decision taken last month by EU foreign ministers in response to the collapse of the Ukrainian government and Yanukovich's flight into exile following a crackdown on protesters in Kiev in which scores killed.
Ukraine's new prime minister, Arseny Yatseniuk, has said Yanukovich embezzled as much as $37 billion during three years in office.
In its filing, the EU said Yanukovich's assets were being frozen "in connection with the embezzlement of Ukrainian state funds and their illegal transfer outside Ukraine".
Among the other prominent names on the sanctions list are Viktor Pshonka, Ukraine's former prosecutor general; Oleksandr Yakymenko, the former head of the security service; and Olena Lukash, the former minister of justice. ( r.reuters.com/tuk47v)
The sons of Yanukovich and Azarov were also on the list.
Yatseniuk was due to meet EU leaders in Brussels on Thursday to discuss the next steps to help Ukraine and its struggling economy get back on its feet.
The EU has pledged around $15 billion in financial assistance to Ukraine, although that is contingent on Kiev agreeing terms with the International Monetary Fund.

Gates up, Saudi’s Prince Alwaleed down in Forbes rich list

Bill Gates has regained his crown as the world’s richest person – but Saudi Arabia’s Prince Alwaleed has fallen in Forbes magazine’s annual billionaire ranking.
The list found that Microsoft co-founder Gates has a net worth of $76 billion, overtaking Mexican telecom mogul Carlos Slim Helu, who holds an altogether more modest $72bn.
Saudi Arabia’s Prince Alwaleed Bin Talal – who last year attacked the Forbes rich list – declined by four places in the ranking. Forbes said that Alwaleed ranks as the world’s 30th richest person, with a net worth of $20.4bn, compared with 26th place in 2013.
That number is likely to jar with Alwaleed, who hit out at Forbes after its 2013 rich list estimated his wealth at a mere $20bn. Alwaleed, claiming he is worth $29.6bn, reportedly sued Forbes for defamation in a British court over the alleged undervaluation.
Other estimates put Alwaleed’s fortune at a lot higher. According to the Bloomberg Billionaires Index, Alwaleed has a fortune of $30.5bn, closer to the prince’s own estimate.
Prince Alwaleed is head of Kingdom Holding, and has investments in companies including News Corp, Citigroup and Four Seasons Hotels & Resorts. He bought $300 million worth of Twitter shares in 2012, which Forbes estimates are now worth upwards of $1 billion.
Forbes acknowledged the tension with Alwaleed in the rich list published this week. “In 2013, Prince Alwaleed sued Forbes for libel in response to an article about him. Forbes stands by our position that the Prince does not have a valid claim and Forbes is preparing a formal response to the complaint,” the magazine said on its website.
Other notable names on the Forbes list include Spanish clothing magnate Amancio Ortega, known for the Zara retail chain, who maintained his third-ranked spot and came out ahead of famed U.S. investor Warren Buffett, who ranked fourth.
Forbes says a record 1,645 billionaires made the list this year, with an average net worth of $4.7 billion. That's up from 1,426 billionaires last year with a net worth of $4.2 billion. The total net worth of this year's list was $6.4 trillion, up from $5.4 trillion last year.
Newcomers to the list include Facebook's Chief Operating Officer Sheryl Sandberg and WhatsApp founders Jan Koum and Brian Acton, who recently sold their business to Facebook for $19 billion.

Crimean Ministry of Finance to consider entering ruble zone

The Ministry of Finance of Crimea should submit by tomorrow proposals for the transition of the republic from the Ukrainian hryvnia to the Russian ruble if Crimeans vote for entry into the Russian Federation in the March 16 referendum, the Prime Minister of the autonomy Sergey Aksenov said.
"Our Ministry of Finance is dealing with this issue now. On Tuesday, March 11, they must present their proposals: what the procedure will be and how long it will take. It will soon be clear what could turn out from our developments, over which a large group of professionals is working," RIA Novosti quotes the Crimean prime minister.
The interim period, when the ruble and the hryvnia will have the same circulation in the territory of Crimea, could last three to six months in the case of accession of the region to Russia, says the chairman of the Supreme Council of Crimea Vladimir Konstantinov .
"I think the circulation of two currencies is a necessary transitory measure. We will define a sufficient period, so that people do not have any problems. Three months if needed, or six months if needed," says Konstantinov.
Konstantinov notes that Sevastopol could get special status within the Crimea region in the case of entry into the Russian Federation. " We will be one territory. This is a city with special status as a part of Crimea," he says. According to him, a majority of the local population stands for Crimea joining Russia. "More than 80% are for Crimea joining the Russian Federation. This is the result of a yesterday's focus group," says Konstantinov, claiming that attendance at the referendum will be high. "The attendance will be very high. This situation has stirred up everyone; this is not the election of deputies but the choice of one's fate," he says.
Recall that the referendum on the status of Crimea is scheduled for March 16.

Turkey's biggest water tunnel completed

Turkey's largest and the world's fifth biggest water tunnel has been inaugurated by the Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan in the south-eastern city of Sanliurfa in the Suruc district.
The water tunnel has been built as part of the regional development project, Southeastern Anatolia Project, which aims to boost the economy and agriculture in an impoverished part of Turkey.
The tunnel will carry 90 cubic meters of water per second over 17km to irrigate almost a million hectares of farmland.
The Turkish premier Erdogan said that with the new developments almost 200,000 people would be employed in the region and it would contribute an estimated amount of more than US$140 million to the regional economy.
Erdogan added that once the water pump stations for the tunnel are completed at the end of this year, the total cost of the project would exceed US$900 million.

Turkey's first nuclear unit to be completed by 2019

Turkey is determined to see the first unit of its planned Akkuyu nuclear power plant operating by 2019, the country's energy minister Taner Yildiz said during a speech in Ankara on Thursday.
The Akuyyu plant, which will consist of four reactors, will be Turkey's first and will be built by Russian energy company Rosatom on the Mediterranean coast, with the aim of it being fully operational by 2023.
Speaking at a meeting with Rosatom, Yildiz said the Environmental Effect Evaluation Report might affect the construction schedule of the plant but that all issues, such as radiation levels and safety regulations, would be handled during the meeting.
Sergei Kirienko, Rosatom's Chief Executive Officer, said the Akkuyu plant could potentially provide $5 billion in contracts for Turkish companies, including construction and assembly.
Responding to a question about whether the political situation in Crimea and resulting sanctions would affect the project, Kirienko said the nuclear power plan projects are long-term and therefore would not be affected by political events.
"Akkuyu plant is planned to operate between 60 to 80 years and will have an investment volume of $20 billion," Kirienko said.
“The relations between Russia and Ukraine are very complicated at the moment, however all the nuclear power plants in Ukraine are operated by Russia and they continue to operate without any problems,” he added.

The Struggle For One God

At the time of Prophet Muhammad sal Allaahu alayhi wa sallam there was a powerful and influential tribal leader by the name of Musaylimah. For those who know his history, I challenge you to tell me who his father was. Ask anyone in the world and they will say, "Al kadhdhab – the liar!" Even if we were to search out his descendants in the present day and ask them who was your ancestor Musaylimah's father, they would say, "The liar!" Why?
Musaylimah had all the earthly ingredients to launch a new religion. He had exquisite knowledge of the language, was a magical public speaker, had wealth beyond imagination, and a tribal army crazy about him, ready to die for his safety. He took all these ingredients and proclaimed to all that he was a Prophet of God just like Muhammad.
He missed one ingredient though, that sunk his ship – the ingredient of truthfulness. That is why today, over 1400 years later, there is not a single human soul on earth who thinks Musaylimah was the Prophet of God. Alas, God did not give him the authority to make this claim.
On the other hand, not a second ticks by in 24 hours, 7 days a week, except that there is a Muslim caller to prayer somewhere in the world in the millions of masajid announcing ash hadu anna Muhammadur RasulAllah – I testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.
This is so because human beings did not give him this authority, nor did he himself proclaim this to himself. As the emperor of Rome, Heracles, asked the Muslim Messenger in the year 679 after he had presented Islam to him, "Which King gave [Muhammad] this authority?" The reply was so simple, so profound, "Allah did! God gave [him] this authority!"
I grew up in central Canada, in a city called Winnipeg; a city so synonymous with the term cold that local folk call it “Winterpeg”. It's so cold that people in Canada say, “Man, you’re from Winnipeg, isn't it cold there?"
I went to grade school in Winnipeg in the early 80's. My family and I lived in an environment where we would be giggled at and insulted at the mall and by passing cars. Not uncommon were random shouts of, "Hey Ninja lady!" or "Look what came out of the Desert!"
At that time, we were the only colored children in the school. I remember once telling a friend to guess what the most popular name in the world was. When I told him it was Muhammad, he told me, "Get lost! You’re the only one in the school with that name. It must be John or something."
I don't blame him; a lot of people in North America have not traveled and experienced the treasures of culture and flavor that the nations of the world have to offer humanity.
Reverend Billy Graham once said something so profound. He said, "I traveled the world and came to the realization that perhaps America does not have in its palm all the truths of the world."
Reverend Billy Graham deserves a standing ovation for a statement like that and the modesty to announce that to millions of viewers. But although America may not have all the truths, it is blessed with a nation of truth seekers, for it is never a shame to be mistaken. The only thing shame lies in after the truth has come is to persist in one’s mistake.
Islam is the fastest growing religion in America, rather in the world. In the past 50 years, Muslims have increased by 233%. And across the earth, from every nation, Muslims number over 1 billion.
The key to Islam is the statement la ilaaha illAllah Muhammad ur RasulAllah – there is no god except Allah, and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.
This statement takes only a few seconds to pronounce, but it is the transformation point of the lives of billions of Muslims around the world. Only the Creator deserves to be worshipped.
Let's take an example from the lives of such people whose lives changed with this call to worship only one God. Bilal radi Allahu anhu was an Abyssinian slave for the aristocracy of Makkah in the year 623. When Muhammad the Messenger of Allah sal Allaahu alayhi wa sallam came with this message of 'No God except Allah', Bilal radi Allahu anhu denounced the 360 statues and idols that the tribes of Makkah were worshipping and believed in only Allah.
His enraged slave master Umayyah would take Bilal out in the sizzling noon heat because of his beliefs, and burn away Bilal's back on the sand. To intensify the pain, Umayyah would bring a boulder and place it on his stomach to press him down on the grilling sand, burning the skin away.
All Bilal would whisper was, "He is only One (God), He is only One (God)," infuriating Umayyah who would only intensify the torture.
Bilal was freed by one of Muhammad’s, sal Allaahu alayhi wa sallam, closest friends and followers, Abu Bakr, and Bilal became the first mu'adhdhin (the one who calls others to prayer) of Islam.
Another example is that of the Muslim woman Sumayyah radi Allahu anha. She was also a slave and because they had accepted that no created thing deserved worship, only the creator, she, her husband, and her son were subjected to physical beatings.
Her torturer Abu Jahl became infuriated one day with her soft voice repeating, "There is no God but Allah!" He became so infuriated that he took a spear through her mid section and made Sumayyah the first Muslim to die in the name of "There is no God but Allah!" May Allah be pleased with her!
Although it was permissible for the Muslims to lie to save themselves from the torture, you'll see example after example of Muslims who would rather die than surrender their right to believe that only Allah deserves to be worshipped.
Amongst the tyrants of Makkah there was a man by the name of Umar ibn Al-Khattabh. He was so vicious with the Muslims that he would volunteer to torture Muslim slaves. One day, he just had enough and unsheathed his sword and set on his way to the home of Muhammad sal Allaahu alayhi wa sallam to slit his throat once and for all. On the way a Muslim who had been hiding his Islam, Nu'aym ibn Abdullah, inquired about Umar's haste. "I'm off to Muhammad, that convert who cut up our tribe, belittled our gods, and mocked our religion, to kill him!"
Nu'aym became afraid for the Messenger of Allah sal Allaahu alayhi wa sallam so he quickly thought and said, "Why don't you start with your family first! Your sister and her husband have accepted Islam!"
Umar became enraged and changed direction to his sister's home. At that time, a Muslim teacher, Khabbab ibn Al-Arat, was at their home teaching them the word of Allah, the Qur'an, and for a few moments Umar stood there listening. Then he shouted for them to open the door. Khabbab hid in an adjacent room and Umar's sister Fatimah hid the scroll that had the Qur'an written on it.
Umar entered and walked right up to his brother-in-law. "I heard you both have accepted Muhammad, and are following him." Then Umar pounded his brother-in-law in the face. Fatimah, his sister, stood to protect her husband, and when she came in the way, Umar slapped the face of his sister with all his might.
She fell to the ground, her cheek split and the blood spilt all over her clothes. She looked up at her brother and said from behind her tears, "Yes Umar we are Muslim and yes, we have believed in Allah and His Messenger. Maybe you don't have all the truth like you think you do?"
Umar was ashamed at the sight of his sister's blood and desisted. He asked, "What was that sound I heard, that recitation?"
His sister replied, "I fear for that scroll to fall in your hands." But Umar swore by the idols that he would do no harm. She handed him the scroll after he had cleansed himself and he recited:
Taha / We did not send down to you the Qur'an that you be distressed / But only as a reminder for those who fear (Allah). / A revelation from He who created the earth and the highest heavens / (Allah) the Merciful (who is) above the Throne established / To him belongs what is in the heavens and what is on the earth and what is between them and what is under the soil. / And if you speak aloud - then indeed, He knows the secret and what is (even) more hidden. / Allah - there in no God except Him, to Him belong the best names (Taha 20/1-8).
Umar later that day visited the Messenger of Allah sal Allaahu alayhi wa sallam. When he met him, the Messenger of Allah sal Allaahu alayhi wa sallam took the coat of Umar and said, "Hasn't the time come for you to become Muslim?" And Umar replied, "I've only come for that reason. Ash hadu an laa ilaaha illAllah, wa ashhadu anna Muhammadar RasulAllah."
The Prophet shouted Allahu Akbar (God is Great), and everyone that heard it knew that Umar had become Muslim!


I've been in large crowds in my life, both in the west and in the Middle East.
In Winnipeg, the biggest crowds I experienced were at hockey games. Like I said before, Winnipeg has a lot of ice. Maybe 20 thousand Winnipeggers would gather at night for a hockey game. Hey that’s a lot for Winnipeg.
In Makkah, at the Grand Mosque, I have been in a crowd of 3 million worshippers in one prayer! These people were not from one nation, nor were they from one language background, and no, they didn’t gather to see the Winnipeg Jets beat the Washington Capitols!
As you’ll see today when we line up for prayer, in Makkah 3 Million people lined up in perfect circles around the Grand Mosque to worship Allah! I once stood in the window of a hotel across from the Grand Mosque and watched down below the swarming crowd of 3 million Muslims. Then, when the call to prayer began, that entire crowd stood in perfect circles in less than 50 seconds. Who gathered these hearts? Only Allah!
A consistent crowd of 3 million from every nation, class, and color came about with pain and struggle to assert humanity’s right to worship nothing but the one true God, Allah.
There were times in that very same valley of Makkah when Muhammad sal Allaahu alayhi wa sallam would prostrate only to Allah, avoiding all the false idols that surrounded him. The mushrikeen (polytheists) of Makkah sat there staring at him and loathed the scene. They said to themselves, "How can we sit here and allow Muhammad to prostrate to Allah in your midst. Who amongst us will humiliate him?"
"I shall," said a man by the name of Utbah.
He took the intestines of a fresh lamb that had been sacrificed to the idols and dumped it on the head of Muhammad sal Allaahu alayhi wa sallam. The mushrikeen fell off their seats in hysterical laughter. Muhammad sal Allaahu alayhi wa sallam did not come up from his prostration.
News reached his daughter Fatimah, who at that time was still a young girl, that her Father was being ridiculed at the Ka'bah. She raced there, and when she saw her father, she cried and removed the filth and swore through her tears at the mushrikeen.
This is just an example of the ridicule the Messenger of Allah and the Muslims went through to teach humanity that nothing deserves worship except Allah!
The mushrikeen of Makkah used their media – poetry and word of mouth – to sway public opinion against this call that there was no God but Allah.
A doctor by the name of Damaud from the tribe of Azd made pilgrimage to Makkah and when he arrived in the Holy valley the news media of Makkah flash warned him not listen to a word Muhammad says. "He is a magician," they said, "He's mad."
Damaud recalls, "They frightened me so much that I considered putting cotton in my ears. But then I said to myself, 'I am a doctor and have healed mad men before, perhaps I may be able to cure Muhammad."
So after completing his circumbulation around the Ka'bah, he saw Muhammad sal Allaahu alayhi wa sallam sitting peacefully in the courtyard. He approached him and said softly, "Muhammad, I administer treatment for this illness and God has allowed me to heal many people, would you wish that I nurse you?"
Muhammad sal Allaahu alayhi wa sallam turned and said, "Verily all praise belongs to Allah; we thank Allah and seek his protection from everything; whoever Allah guides none can misguide them and whoever Allah leaves to go astray none can guide them aright. I testify that there is no God worthy of worship except Allah and that (I) Muhammad am the Messenger of Allah."
Damaud's mouth gapped open. He swallowed and said, "Could you repeat that for me?" Muhammad the Messenger of Allah sal Allaahu alayhi wa sallam repeated it.
Then Damaud smiled and announced, "By God, I have heard the words of soothsayers, and have heard the words of magicians, and have heard the words of poets, but I have never heard words like this! Give me your hand for I am pledging allegiance to Islam. There is no God but Allah and Muhammad is His Messenger!"
You'll find in the Qur'an verse after verse opening the eyes of humanity to the reality that there is a God and He is only One.
Jubayr ibn Mut'em stood quietly behind the Messenger of Allah sal Allaahu alayhi wa sallam at Maghrib prayer one day and listened to the verses of the Qur'an. The Messenger of Allah sal Allaahu alayhi wa sallam was reciting Surah At-Toor and in it he heard him recite:
Were they created by nothing or were they the creators of (themselves)? / Or, did they create the heavens and the earth? Rather, they are not certain. / Or have they (in their hands) the treasures of your Lord? Or do they control it? (At-Toor 52/ 35-37)
Jubayr ibn Mut'em said, "When I heard these verses, it was as if my heart had wings flying swiftly and in bliss to the truth that I had found in Islam."
Brothers and sisters, where will you be in 100 years? You'll be dead. And where were you 100 years ago? Nowhere. You were nothing. Allah says in the Qur’an:
Has there not come upon man a period of time when he was not a thing (even) mentioned? / Indeed, We created man from a sperm - drop mixture (i.e. combination of male and female substance) that We may test him and We made him hearing and seeing. / Indeed, We guided him to the way, to be thankful or to be ungrateful. (Al-Insan 76/1-3)
In those early days of Islam, the Messenger of Allah sal Allaahu alayhi wa sallam would go from tent to tent, tribe to tribe, announcing to them, "Say there is no God but Allah and success will be yours!"
Today, over 1400 years later as the followers of Muhammad, believers in Allah, we extend those words of our Messenger sal Allaahu alayhi wa sallam to all our guests today: Say there is no God but Allah and success will be yours!

The Prophet Adam and Human Evolution

The theory of human evolution, namely that man descended from apes, is widely accepted amongst non-Muslims although there have been many non-Muslim scientists, atheists included, who argue that it is flawed. As an opinion, it was wholly rejected by all Muslims as it goes against their basic knowledge that Allah created Adam with his own hands, from clay, in the physical form of a human being, and then breathed life into it. Even so, there have been a few Muslims over the years that have endorsed the theory attempting to initiate a discussion on the topic, whilst there are non-Muslims who criticise us for being 'simple-minded' and 'scientifically inconsistent'.
Due to such attacks, some Muslims felt inferior and thought that the problem could be rectified by an acceptance of the evolution theory, or at least accepting it as a valid alternative. However, the decisive verses of the Qur'an as well as the ahadith (Prophetic narrations) provide a problem for such an undertaking, and so we find that there are mistakes and random misinterpretations. Of course, those of truth will always oppose such heresy, to which these Muslim evolutionists, if there ever was such a term (!), respond that "we believe in the existence of Allah, the initial Creator, yet what is wrong in concluding that the way in which God created all human beings, including the first human, Adam, was by means of evolution, and namely, non-human parents who descended from apes?” Such people insist that this latest version of the theory is compatible with revelation given that there is no unequivocal scriptural text to deny it!
In order to deal with such unfounded claims, I would like to approach the issue in a scholastic and systematic manner so as to demonstrate how theological deviancy comes about through incompetence in systematically and rationally deriving meaning from the scriptural texts. It is due to this incompetence (that we should all be aware of so we save ourselves) that some attempt to legitimise the theory of human evolution and others unrecognised views that accompany it.
It is commonly believed that the Qur'an and the ahadith (Prophetic traditions) are the only sources of Islamic authority, yet we find that one of the primary causes of an individual's theological (and legal) deviancy is the attempt to fully understand the divine texts by his/herself, with complete disregard for the profound understandings and well-substantiated views of hundreds of thousands of Muslim scholars from around the world who have contributed to the vast corpus of Islamic scholarship over the last 1400 years. The irony of such disregard is that Muslim proponents of the evolution process completely brush aside Islamic scholarly consensus yet are the first to advocate the (supposed) consensus of non-Muslim scientists!
It is clear that priorities are misplaced, for in glorifying western scientists the proponents of human evolution neglect the intellectual aptitude of Muslim scholars, particularly, the early scholars who were extremely astute and would, with all dedication, intensely scrutinise each and every aspect of the Islamic religion prior to any form of endorsement or inclination towards a given view – in fact, it is only very recently that scientists have adopted the same level of rigour. Given such a profound analysis, none of Islam's scholars, let alone the greatest amongst them, ever articulated the view that Adam came into existence as a result of some evolutionary process. In fact, none of Islam's early scholars ever even considered the possibility of Adam being created in stages of existence, or that he experienced childhood at some time of his life.
In adopting a religious opinion which is counter to a scholarly consensus made up of thousands of Muslim scholars over a long period of time, the proponents of human evolution expose their distorted outlook on Islamic knowledge and the Muslims scholars (as a collective) whom Allah has appointed as trustees of the faith. Such an attitude implies that Allah, may he be free from such an implication, has allowed the entire Muslim ummah, over a period spanning more than a millennium, to deviate from the truth whilst the correct view is uncovered by (theological) laymen in recent times!
Disregarding the binding legacy of scholastic consensus goes against plain old common sense and a number of verses and Prophetic traditions that state that scholars, not as individuals but as a collective, are the trustees of the faith. The explicit statements are numerous, such as Allah's statement, "And We sent not before you but men to whom We inspired, so ask the people of the Reminder if you do not know" [1], and the Prophet's (peace be upon him) saying, "the scholars are the inheritors of the Prophets.”
To believe that Adam had monkey-like parents (despite the fact that overwhelming evidences go against it) and to completely abandon the consensus of Muslims is indicative of deep-rooted arrogance, a rejection of the clear evidences, or ignoring the correct methodology in understanding the divine texts. For example, the first step of a sound methodology would be to analyse whether the conclusion is consistent with the Arabic language, since Arabic is the primary tool used in interpreting divine revelation, and so, any interpretation that fails to fall within the framework of the Arabic language is one that is redundant. For example, the Arabs did not consider the phrase kun fa yakun (be! And it is/was) to be an indefinite period of time, for indeed, the phrase illustrates the power and might of God that His will is manifested immediately and decisively, without delay. Even the phrase "be! And it is/was” in English implies it (whatever it is) happens instantaneously, and to argue otherwise would be a distortion of the English language!
Another key principle that must be established when dealing with scripture is the inter-contextualisation of the entire divine text - in order to correctly interpret the Qur'an and ahadith we must approach them, not as solitary verses, but as one coherent and homogeneous unit that affords a holistic interpretation, and not an interpretation based on preconceived ideas that singles out isolated verses so as to misconstrue them. Indeed, to approach the divine scriptures having already decided the matter is an insincere attempt to justify one's belief, and to approach them enquiring into what Allah has ordained, in an open an unbiased way, is to demonstrate the sincere intention to receive guidance.
Another irony is the fact that the evolutionists try to place a theory (evolution) over fact (the Qur'an and ahadith). Do we not ponder why it is still considered a theory despite the fact that the idea has been around, in some popular form, since Darwin and is promoted so fanatically by its protagonists? It is truly unfortunate to see those who ascribe to Islam promote the theory of human evolution, and then do so by relying on mutashabih (ambiguous) verses of the Qur'an, some of which are clear kinaya [2] (metonyms), and leave off muhkam (explicit) verses. This is precisely what Allah warns us against, saying,
"Those with deviation in their hearts follow what is undefined in it, desiring conflict, seeking its (false) interpretation." [3]
Evolution, in relating to man, is such an unfounded concept that to engage with it on par with academic and intellectual standards is to afford it credence, it being deserving of nothing but aversion. I could perhaps list all of the scientific inaccuracies of claiming that Adam came from apes, but as a Muslim it is more than sufficient to adopt the understanding of the scholars rather than derive a misconstrued meaning from a lone verse or hadith. This should be the case with any Muslim who believes that Allah has ordained certain measures to guard Islam against innovation, and hence, I shall, very limitedly, mention a small number of proofs which, for the benefit of the Muslim masses, simply expose the foolishness of this supposition.

The Qur'an clearly states that Adam was created by Allah, and with His own hands, "He said, 'Iblis, what prevented you prostrating to what I created with My own two hands?" [4] In addition, the famous Companion, Abdullah ibn Umar, said, "Allah created four things with His hand: the Throne, the Pen, the Garden of Eden and Adam. To the rest of His creation He said, 'Be!' and it was." [5] This narration clearly shows that the Companions believed that these four things, Adam included, were created in a way different to other animals and creatures. The authenticated ahadith furnish us with further examples that leave no doubt whatsoever that this was an actual act performed by Allah. For example, the Messenger of Allah said that on the Last Day, mankind would go from Prophet to Prophet requesting intercession; they would go to Adam and say, "You are the father of mankind, Allah created you with His hands, had the angels prostrate to you, and taught you the names of all things." [6] If Adam was created from a 'despised drop' and like all other human beings, then what is the point of singling him out as being created by Allah's hands?
"The likeness of Jesus, to Allah, is the same as Adam. He created him from earth and then He said to him, 'Be!' and he was." [7]
This verse is often quoted in isolation from the reasons for which it was revealed, thus, some evolutionists claim that the verse asserts that Jesus and Adam were born in the same way – through the womb of a female. Such an interpretation is deceptive as a brief look into the sabab al-nuzul (causes for revelation) quickly makes clear that the verse was revealed to repudiate the Christian argument that proof of Jesus' divinity is his having no earthly father. The verse states that Adam had no parents whatsoever, being created instead from earth, yet this did not make him divine; the comparison then was between the single parent of Jesus and the absence of parents in regards to Adam.
The Qur'an informs us that Allah "taught Adam the names of all things" [8] and so, we resolutely know that Allah engaged Adam directly. Allah also says,
"O mankind! Be mindful of your Lord who created you from a single soul and created its mate from it and then disseminated many men and women from the two of them." [9]
"It is He who created you from a single soul and made from him his spouse so that he might find repose in her." [10]
"O mankind! We created you from a male and female, and made you into peoples and tribes so that you might come to know each other." [11]
If we were to ignorantly suppose that Adam was born of evolved apes, we would then be positing, according to the verses above, that the creation of Hawwa' was ever so more significant than that of Adam as she was not born but actually fashioned, by God, from Adam. Thus, in negating the instantaneous creation of Adam, the evolutionist is still left having to affirm the instantaneous creation of Hawwa'! And it is this fact, from amongst the many, that exposes the nonsense spewed by evolutionists, for in striving to negate a miracle of God (the creation of Adam), they resort to having to affirm it elsewhere (the creation of Hawwa'), that is, if they can resist the urge to deny the book of God outrightly.
The story of the Sabbath-breakers is well known whereby Allah cursed the disobedient and turned them into monkeys and pigs. [12] How then, can the honoured sons of Adam [13] actually come from that which is considered a curse? Of course, in being honoured, it is only logical to conclude that either humans haven't come from apes, or that we negate the maskh itself and claim that the Sabbath-breakers did not turn into apes and pigs. Even if we were to state, for the sake of argument, that the transformation was metaphorical, the essential point still remains that they were cursed by taking on qualities of monkeys and apes. Correspondingly, there are various contradictions that arise in relation to Adam and Hawwa' when attempting to scripturally justify human evolution. There are various mutawatir texts that confirm that Adam and Hawwa' lived as spouses and that mankind came from the two, indeed the textual evidences regarding this point are particularly decisive. Furthermore, it seems quite an irrational interpretation that Allah mentions Hawwa' as being brought into existence through Allah's direct involvement, yet Adam, the first human being receives no such honour! It is extremely clear that the evolutionists and their deviant ideas refuse to acknowledge the entire textual discourse surrounding the creation of Adam, instead using solitary verses as a justification for evolutionist beliefs. Thus, in order to attempt some form of reconciliation between the two accounts, the evolutionist must adapt the Qur'an to fit the theory, or the theory to fit the Qur'an, or transform both equally, and in every case, each possibility is as preposterous as the others, all serving as evil paths to heresy.
In going beyond the Qur'an, we find that the ahadith are full with authentic narrations concerning the creation of Adam, and in keeping with deceitful intent we find that many liberals and evolutionists completely ignore the existence of such ahadith. Indeed they have to, for the shari'ah of Allah is preserved through the Prophetic narrations and so the evolutionists will do anything to maintain their secular outlook on the Islamic faith. In fact, the notion of evolution is deeply secular as it divorces the involvement of God in creation and attempts to posit Nietzsche's opinion that if there is a god, then he merely initiated creation (which grew on its own) and that god is now non-existent or dead – we seek protection from Allah from such profanity.
We find that Anas ibn Malik relates from the Prophet,
"When Allah fashioned Adam in Paradise, He left him as He willed. Iblis then wandered around him examining him. Upon seeing him as hollow from within, he recognised that Adam had been created with a disposition that he would not have control over himself." [14]
I have not seen any scholar, past or present, who affords science the authority to determine how Adam was created. In cases where scholars do refer to science (in a limited capacity), they tend to provide their conclusions and then either explicitly/implicitly mention that this matter should be dealt with through science. In numerous verses the Qur'an commands mankind to reflect on the various types of creation, the alternation of day and night, and the celestial orbit of planets, but there is no indication whatsoever of an evolved Adam. In fact, the Qur'an describes the process of human creation in the womb but discounts the evolution of humans from monkey-like beings. If it is argued that the lack of evolutionary descriptions in the Qur'an is due to evolution's complex nature, then we retort with the fact that so too is the process of foetal development, yet revelation informs us of it and to its fullest extent.
There are countless texts that can be analysed, but to do so would make this article voluminous. However, even light analysis of the Qur'an and Sunnah makes it exceedingly evident that such heretical beliefs have no place within Islamic thought - the Companions and early Muslims all understood the manner in which Adam was created by Allah and it is preposterous to claim that Allah revealed scripture that was misunderstood by all of the aforementioned, yet the Most High did not rectify their misreading!

Is the creation of Adam a scientific or religious matter?

In reality, there is no disparity between religious creed and science, and if there seems to be so, it inevitably implies that there has been some form of misunderstanding, either in terms of our religious or scientific knowledge. However, a decisive part of being Muslim is to acknowledge that the information related by way of the Qur'an and Sunnah entails certainty, whereas any other knowledge that we acquire is prone to human error. Thus, if the scriptures posit anything related to science and the overwhelming majority of scholars affirm its meaning, then we have to believe in it accordingly as such knowledge is fact-based and not merely human perception. The Qur'an and Sunnah address various disciplines such as science, history, geography, anthropology, politics and others. Whatever is mentioned there should be adopted as an aspect of our faith, "they say: we believe in it, all of it is from our Lord." [15] Failing to do so suggests either one's negation of more than half of the Qur'an, or accepting a text which is essentially devoid of meaning as it ends up meaning anything we desire it to, and this is how many of the obdurate fall into disbelief. For example, it has been repeatedly argued that the Qur'an is not a book of history, and so, the heretics argue that we are not obligated to believe historical details which Allah has revealed. Of course, the Qur'an is not a book of many things, but that is not to suggest that various topics are touched upon. Indeed, Allah says,
"There is not a moving (living) creature on earth, nor a bird that flies with its two wings, but are communities like you. We have neglected nothing in the Book, and then to their Lord they (all) shall be gathered." [16]

The ruling concerning the belief in Adam's primate descendents.

Restricting the discussion merely to a ruling may be counterproductive as anyone who mistakenly concludes that it is not kufr (disbelief) will assume such profanation is to be tolerated, and so therefore, the main issue is not the ruling of such an immoral belief and whether it is kufr, but instead the gravity of this belief and what it signifies - it is the negation of what the ummah has endorsed as well as being in violation of countless proofs that state otherwise. Endorsing the presumption that humans evolved necessitates accepting reprehensible beliefs about the noble Prophet, Adam, may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him, and that his parents were either apes or ape-like beings! It is to insult the station of prophethood by claiming that Adam was taken care of by human-like baboons. Were Adam's parents able to speak or did they merely grunt? Were they obliged to worship Allah or not? What was the extent of Adam's cognitive faculties? Do human beings now have more advanced faculties than he did – have they evolved since his time on earth? How is it that the Qur'an disregards a significant aspect of Adam's life although he discusses, in detail, what was before it and what came after.
If we believe that Allah is the Creator and can create anything, then what is wrong in accepting that he created Adam directly from clay, fashioned him, and brought him to life instantaneously? What is it that they negate? Why do we need to distort the meanings of countless Qur'anic verses in favour of a theory that continually changes? Must we negate the numerous and authentic ahadith that clearly establish a non-evolutionist narrative?
In conclusion, to use the theory of Darwin or any other theory that stems from it in order to justify the wicked belief that Adam was born of non-human parents is, in essence, to deny the existence of Allah as supreme creator who creates from nothing by mere command. It is this method of creating (although there are other ways as well) that establishes Allah's rububiyyah (lordship), for in affirming unjustified theories of human evolution we make chance the creator, since anything that is created exists merely because chance decided so. But Allah says, "Or do they assign to Allah partners who created the like of His creation, so that (both) creations seemed alike to them?' Say: 'Allah is the Creator of all things; He is the One, the Irresistible.'" [17]
I call upon those who believe and adhere to Islam to affirm the clear and decisive Qur'anic revelations and lucid ahadith, all of which negate the notion of human evolution, let alone Adam having non-human parents. I also call upon them to make the Islamic texts the primary source of authority in all of their affairs, since (Allah) the One who reveals revelation is most knowledgeable about the affairs of the universe. Let us not allow those of no faith to dictate our readings of scripture, our implementation of the Islamic faith, or our notions of what is to be deemed as being most superior, both in terms of creed and actions.
For those Muslims who endorse the theory of human evolution, contemplate the scripture with a believing and unbiased heart whilst keeping in mind the Sunnah of Allah's noble Messenger. Strive against egotism and haughtiness and do not fear the criticisms of the disbelievers. Allah says,
"Therefore flee unto Allah; I am a plain warner to you from Him. And set not any other god along with Allah; I am a plain warner to you from Him." [18]
Allah knows best.
May peace and blessings be upon the Prophet, his family, his Companions,
and all those who follow them in righteousness and the correct creed.


[1] 16:43; 21:7
[2] See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metonymy
[3] 3:7
[4] 38:75
[5] Lalika'i, no. 729-730
[6] Authenticity agreed upon by al-Bukhari and Muslim; a mutawaatir hadith.
[7] 3:59
[8] 2:31
[9] 4:1
[10] 7:189
[11] 49:13
[12] cf. 5:60, 7:166
[13] 17:70
[14] Muslim
[15] 7:3
[16] 6:38
[17] 13:16
[18] 51:50-51